Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a country in Western Europe with a population of about 82 million. Its official language is German. It comprises 16 states, and its capital and largest city is Berlin. A highly developed country, it has the fourth largest economy in the world and is one of the economic powers in the European Union. It is governed by a parliamentary republic, with the President as the head of state and the Chancellor as the head of government.
Formerly made up of a number of states, Germany was unified in the late 19th century and formed the German Empire, which collapsed in 1918 after World War I. It was governed by the Weimar Republic until the rise of fascism in the 1930s, which led to Germany being dominated by the Nazi regime under Adolf Hitler. Nazi Germany fought in World War II (1939-1945) on the Axis side until it was defeated by Allied forces in 1945 and forced to surrender. Germany was divided into West and East after the war, and was reunified in 1990.
Spanking in Germany
Corporal punishment in parenting and education had a long tradition in Germany until it became frowned upon, and eventually illegal, in the course of the 20th century. Spanking implements that were traditionally popular in Germany included the birch (up to the 19th century), the cane (19th to mid-20th century), sticks, switches, belts, straps, and household items such as wooden spoons or carpet beaters.
School corporal punishment included not only spankings given with the birch or cane, but also other forms of corporal punishment such as face slapping (Ohrfeigen) or striking the student's hands with a cane, stick or ruler (Tatzen). See Johann Häberle for a German school teacher's account of corporal punishment in 1750.
A shame based method of punishment used in German schools up to the 19th century was the donkey cap (a cap with "donkey ears", using the animal as a symbol of stupidity) and riding a wooden donkey. Other punishment methods included corner time, grounding and locking a child for a period of time in an attic, cellar, or similar room.
Corporal punishment in German schools was abolished in 1949 (East Germany) and 1973 (West Germany), respectively. Corporal as well as any other kind of "degrading" punishment in parenting was outlawed in Germany in 1998.
See Corporal punishment in hunting for a description of a uniquely German 17th-century practice known as Pfunde geben.
German spanking art
There is historic German spanking art from the Middle Ages and Renaissance up to modernity. A well-known 19th century German poet and cartoonist, Wilhelm Busch, made many references to spanking in his humorous verse and cartoon illustrations. A 19th century German spanking author is W. Reinhard who wrote Nell in Bridewell.
German spanking artists from the early 20th century include Helga Bode, Richard Hegemann, Paul Klamm (C. Soulier), Eugene Reunier (Carl Breuer-Courth), Otto Schoff and possibly Hata Deli, Alphonse Friaux and/or R. Planitz. There also is (or was) Max Raute. Contemporary German spanking artists include Alina, CM Zero, Darius and DT.
German spanking magazines, forums and clubs
There are a number of spanking forums, most of which also organize munches, parties, workshops or other meetings in real life. These include Spankingfreunde, Spanking-Liebe, Spanking-Oase, Spanking Silo, and Spankodrom.
Political cartoon of Germany whipping England's Secretary of State, Joseph Chamberlain (c. 1901).
1920s Berlin decadence, illustration by Paul Klamm.