China, officially the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中华人民共和国), is a country in East Asia. With a population of over 1.3 billion, China is the most populous country in the world. Its capital is Beijing, its largest city is Shanghai, and its official language is Mandarin.
China's history can be traced back to the ancient Chinese civilization, when it was ruled by a series of hereditary monarchies (or dynasties) from around 2000 BC until 1911, when the last dynasty, the Qing, was overthrown by a revolution. From 1911, China was governed by the Republic of China, which lasted throughout World War II (1939-1945), until it was defeated by the communists in the Chinese Civil War (1927-1950). The Republic of China retreated to Taiwan and has been based there since late 1949, establishing Taiwan as a separate country. Mainland China came under the control of the Communist Party of China (CPC) - which still governs the mainland today - and became a country known as the People's Republic of China, which functions as a single-party state with the President as the head of state and the Premier as the head of government.
The People's Republic of China comprises 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities and two self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau). China also claims Taiwan as its 23rd province but this claim is controversial due to the complicated political status of Taiwan. Since economic reforms were introduced in 1978, China has become the world's fastest growing economy and now has the second largest economy in the world, but its standards of living, human rights, healthcare, education, and other aspects, are still relatively low as compared to other countries.
 Spanking in China
 Judicial corporal punishment
- Main article: Chi Zhang
Judicial corporal punishment was common in ancient China. It has been officially banned in China since 1949 when the communist government came to power.
 Domestic spanking
In colloquial Chinese, spanking is known as dǎ-pì-gǔ (打屁股, literally: hit the buttocks), while a more formal term for corporal punishment is tǐ-fá (體罰/体罚, literally: punishment of the body (i.e. corporal punishment)). Apart from hand-spanking, paddling and caning, another popular method of punishment in Chinese society is kneeling - the misbehaving child is forced to kneel in a corner, or in front of the ancestral tablets, to reflect on their misdeeds.
Apart from the typical spanking implements like paddles and canes, parents may also use other makeshift implements readily available in the house, such as the handles of feather dusters or clothes hangers.
Traditionally, Chinese families would ceremonially keep an implement (usually a wooden stick or a cane) in the house and call it the jiā-fǎ (家法, lit. "household rule", "household regulation", or "household law"), which serves as a symbol of discipline within the household. Whenever a member of the family commits an offense, the head of the family (usually the patriarch) would take out the jiā-fǎ and use it to punish the delinquent, who may already be kneeling somewhere to await punishment. Jiā-fǎ may also refer to the punishment and not just the implement.
In China today, parents may legally use corporal punishment on their children, but they may be charged with child abuse if their children get injured. Corporal punishment has generally been tolerated in Chinese society since ancient times, in accordance with traditional Chinese views that "(some) corporal punishment (when appropriately used) will do a child good". There are some Chinese phrases that reflect this "tough love" idea clearly, some of which may be regarded as the Chinese equivalent of 'spare the rod and spoil the child'. These phrases include:
- dǎ shì téng, mà shì ài (打是疼，罵是愛 / 打是疼，骂是爱), lit. "hitting is a form of care, scolding is a form of love". This phrase means that when parents hit (or spank) and scold their children, they are actually concerned about their children and love their children deep inside their hearts.
- bù dǎ bù chéng qì (不打不成器), lit. "one will not become successful without having been beaten". This phrase conveys the idea that people who turn out to be successful in life would usually have been well-disciplined by their parents in their childhood. This was reinforced by the fact that many famous Chinese persons (both historical and contemporary) often recalled having grew up under the supervision of strict parents. Conversely, people who have not been well-disciplined in their childhood are likely to be spoiled and pampered by their parents, and will not turn out to be successful.
- bàng xià chū xiào zǐ (棒下出孝子), lit. "a filial son emerges from under the staff". The "staff" refers to the jiā-fǎ or a walking stick carried by an elderly father, who used the "staff" to discipline his children and ensured that moral values were inculcated in them since childhood.
 School corporal punishment
School corporal punishment has a long history in China. Traditionally, only boys attended school while girls were discouraged from schooling. In school, a teacher was viewed as the highest moral authority and was allowed to punish misbehaving students. Besides, the parents also respected the teachers and permitted their sons to be punished, because they believed that "a strict teacher would produce a good student" (嚴師出高徒/严师出高徒, yán shī chū ɡāo tú). Some parents even ceremonially presented teachers with wooden sticks on the first day of school to show that they were passing on the responsibility of disciplining their sons to the teacher. (This is still practiced in South Korea today.) This tradition is gradually declining in modern Chinese society as parents are now more protective of their children and may even take legal action against teachers if they find out that their children have been "abused" in school.
School corporal punishment is now banned in China, but is still known to be practiced illegally in many areas, mostly by caning and especially for boys. Video clips exist (see Links below).
 Film and television
Corporal punishment scenes frequently appear in many Chinese period films and television series. Even in contemporary dramas, spanking scenes are also sometimes seen - husband-wife spankings, birching of children, and the beating of adults with long wooden paddles or rods.
Whippings are common in Women in Prison films. Some examples include the 1973 Hong Kong movie Bamboo House of Dolls, and the 1979 Taiwanese movie Great Escape from Woman’s Prison.
One of the well-known films of this type is The Notorious Concubines (1969), a Japanese film by Wakamatsu Koji. It is based on the legendary exploits of Pan Jinlian, a fictional 13th century woman who was the wily, vicious concubine of a rich merchant called Ximen Qing. (These two characters also appear in the Chinese classic novel Water Margin.) The film has two scenes of half-clad women being brutally whipped.
Another notable exploitation film about this period is A Chinese Torture Chamber Story (1994), which shows Hong Kong actress Yvonne Yung being beaten on the bare bottom by wooden paddles during an interrogation session in court.
A video compilation from a Chinese game show where female contestants receive penalty strokes with a riding crop can be seen on DailyMotion.
 Video clips
Punishments depicted in historical films include:
- double birching
- girl gets double paddling
- beating with a bamboo pole
- a large leather strap
- specially designed wood paddles
Punishments in contemporary stories:
- a girl is birched outdoors
- a couple gets a dual pole-beating and caning
 CP/BDSM films with Chinese actresses
Quite a few Chinese and Chinese-American adult performers in the pornography industry have also appeared (playing mostly submissive roles) in a variety of BDSM and spanking videos produced in the U.S., the U.K. and elsewhere. Below is a list of films and weblinks to video clips available for viewing on the Internet.
- After the Long Break (Chanta's Bitches), DragonLily (Femdom)
- All Asian Lesbian Domination (Chanta's Bitches), DragonLily, Kaiya Lynn
- An Exercise In Bondage (Maxine X), Siren Thorn
- Asian Bondage Fantasies 1 (Bizarre Video, 2002), Annabel Chong
- Asian Bondage Fantasies 2 (Bizarre Video, 2002), Annabel Chong
- Asian Bondage Fantasies 4 (Bizarre Video, 2002), Mika Tan, Tiger Lilly
- Asian Spanking Discipline (Bizarre Video, 2006), Lyla Lei, Annie Cruz, Ayako Tamura, Kitty Langdon, Lystra (Faith).
- Asian Spanking Sorority Girls (Spice XXX, 2008), Jazmine Leih, Kina Kai, Kitty Jung, Lacey Liu, Lyla Lei, Lystra (Faith)
- Asians Bound and Fucked #4 (Maxine X), Jaden, aka Siren Thorn
- Babydoll Bottoms (Shadow Lane), Dragon Lily
- Bondage Bitches In Heat (Maxine X), Jaden, aka Siren Thorn
- Bound to Cum #8 (Maxine X), Siren Thorn
- The Determined Slave (Chanta's Bitches), Mika Tan
- DragonLily's Come-Back (Chanta's Bitches)
- DragonLily's Slave (Chanta's Bitches)
- Femdom Violations 2 (Maxine X, 2006), Dragon Lilly
- Girls Spanking Girls (Freaky Steve), Jasmine Jade
- Girls Dominating Girls (Freaky Steve), Jasmine Jade
- Harmony and LieLani (Whippedass.com), LieLani
- The Happy Hooker (Chanta's Bitches), Ava Devine
- Humiliating the Whore (Chanta's Bitches), Ava Devine
- The Interrogation (Chanta's Bitches), Mika Tan
- Maid for Revenge (Maxine X), Yumi Yu
- Mark Davis and LieLani (Sexandsubmission.com), LieLani
- Master's Purchase (Chanta's Bitches), Mika Tan
- Miserable Slave (Chanta's Bitches), Mika Tan
- Nina Hartley's Guide to Bondage Sex (Adam & Eve, 2008), Dragon Lilly
- Office Cruelty (Impressive Productions, 2000), Annabel Chong (director and star), Femdom
- Ordered to Play (Chanta's Bitches), Mika Tan
- Private Vin (Chanta's Bitches), Mika Tan (Femdom)
- Red Ass (Chanta's Bitches), DragonLily (Femdom)
- The Silly Bitch (Chanta's Bitches), DragonLily
- Slutty Ava (Chanta's Bitches), Ava Devine
- Spanking Asian Girls (Pacific Force), TigerLily, Cheryl Dynasty
- Spanking Asian Girls 2 (Pacific Force), Mika Tan, Lyla Lei
- Spanking Asian Girls 3 (Pacific Force), Mia Smiles, Kaiya Lynn
- Spanking Girls (Freaky Steve), Jasmine Jade
 Spanking and BDSM videos on the Internet
- Asian Bondage Fantasies 4 (Bizarre Video), Mika Tan, Tiger Lilly
- Ava Devine bondage (14 min.) Hogtied.com
- Ava Devine and Chyna White (30 min.) Whippedass.com
- Chinese Nurse Caned (Red Stripe Films)
- Chinese Schoolgirl Caned (Sound Punishment)
- Chinese Schoolgirl Spanked (Chinese Spanking)
- The Dragon Fucks her Bitch (41 min.), Dragon Lilly, Kat (Chanta's Bitches)
- Dragon Lilly dominates Sydnee Capri (41 min.) Kink.com
- Escort (1 min. preview), Southeastern Woodshed
- The Interrogation (46 min.) Chanta's Bitches
- Jandi Lin subs for Lew Reubens (26 min.) Waterbondage.com
- Keeani Lei BDSM (Hogtied.com)
- Keeani Lei whipped (Waterbondage.com)
- Lilly Gets a Paddle-Fried Bottom (Sound Punishment)
- Loni BDSM (36 min.), Hogtied.com
- Maid for Revenge (42 min.) Maxine X
- Maid for Revenge cont. (44 min.) Maxine X
- Tia Ling BDSM 1 (68 min.), Whippedass.com
- Tia Ling BDSM 2 (6 min.), Kink.com
- untitled Mika Tan movie (37 min.), Kink.com
 Chinese spanking art
 See also
About corporal punishment in China:
- Citizen Cane - translation of an article on corporal punishment in China by Xing Bao on World Corporal Punishment Research
- 60% of Chinese children suffer corporal punishment (news article, 2004)
- Article and photograph of a Chinese father giving his son a bare bottom spanking on the street (M/m)
- Video clips of classroom canings in modern China at World Corporal Punishment Research
About Chinese/Asian BDSM:
- Asian Mistress - dominatrix-for-hire service in Australia.
- Asian Slave Escorts - Australian BDSM-fantasy escort agency.
- BDSM China - Chinese style bondage photos and videos.
- BDSM-China.com - social network site for Chinese BDSM enthusiasts.
- Chinabondage - Chinese bondage photos, videos etc.
- China Escorts - Australian escort agency that caters to fantasies and fetishes.
- Hong Kong Escorts - dating service based in Australia.
- Punished Chinese Girls - S&M novel by J. L. Jones (Olympia Classic).
- Red Torture - a site promoting Chinese BDSM videos, photos, etc.
Chinese spanking art and media: